S.No Place of excavation District Year
1Korkai Tuticorin 1968 – 1969
2PanchalankurichiTuticorin1968 – 1969
3VasavasamudramKanchipuram1969 – 1970
4AnaimalaiCoimbatore1969 – 1970
5PallavameduKanchipuram1970 – 1971
6KarurKarur 1973 – 1979, 1994 – 1995
7Panayakulam Dharmapuri 1979 – 1980
8Boluvampatti Coimbatore1979 – 1980, 1980 – 1981
9KovalanpottalMadurai1980 – 1981
10ThondiRamanathapuram1980 – 1981
11GangaikondacholapuramAriyalur 1980 – 1981, 1986 – 1987, 2008 – 2009
12KannanurTiruchirappalli1982 – 1983
13KurumbanmeduThanjavur1984 – 1985
14Palayarai Thanjavur1984 – 1985
15Alagankulam Ramanathapuram 1986 – 1987, 1990 – 1991, 1993 – 1994, 1995 – 1996, 1996 – 1997, 1997 – 1998, 2014 – 2015
16TirukkovilurVillupuram1992 – 1993
17KodumanalErode1992 – 1993, 1996 – 1998
18SendamangalamVillupuram1992 – 1993, 1994 – 1995
19PadaveduTiruvannamalai1992 – 1993
20TiruttangalVirudhunagar1994 – 1995
21PoompuharNagappatinam1994 – 1995, 1997 – 1998
22MaligaimeduCuddalore1999 – 2000
23TirunelveliRamanathapuram1999 – 2000
24MangudiTirunelveli2001 – 2002
25PerurCoimbatore2001 –2002
26AndipattiTiruvannamalai2004 – 2005
27ModurDharmapuri2004 – 2005
28MarakkanamVillupuram2005 – 2006
29ParikulamThiruvallur2005-06
30NedunkurKarur2006 – 2007
31MangulamMadurai2006 – 2007
32SembiankandiyurNagappatinam2007 – 2008
33TranquebarNagappatinam2008 – 2009
34RajakkalmangalamTirunelveli2009 – 2010
35TalaichankaduNagapattinam2010 – 2011
36AlambaraiKancheepuram2011 – 2012
37SrirangamTrichy2013 – 2014 , 2014 – 2015
38Ukkaran KottaiTirunelveli2014 – 2015
39PattaraiperumbudurTiruvallur2015 – 2016
40KeeladiSivagangai2017 – 2018, 2018 – 2019

Pre-historic period[edit]

PeriodEvents
c. 150,000-100,000 BCEEvidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology in north Tamil Nadu.
c. 30,000 BCEPaleolithic industries in north Tamil Nadu
c. 80003000 BCEPre-pottery microlithic industries
c. 30001000 BCENeolithic and fine microlithic industries

Pre-Sangam period[edit]

PeriodEvents
c. 1000300 BCEMegalithic age
c. 600 BCEThe Wootz steel production process started in the 6th century BC and exported globally by Chera dynasty what was termed the finest steel in the world, i.e. Seric Iron to the Romans, Egyptians, Chinese and Arabs by 500 BC
c. 400 BCEKaveripattinam, The ancient capital port city of the Chola Dynasty was destroyed by the sea.
c. 300 BCEGreek ethnographer Megasthenes describes Pandyan Dynasty‘s capital Madurai.
c. 250 BCEAsoka‘s inscription recording the four kingdoms (Chera, Cholas, Pandya and Satyaputra) of the ancient Tamil country
c. 200 BCEElara, a Tamil prince and contemporary of Dutte Gamini, rules Lanka

Sangam age[edit]

PeriodEvents
c. 300 BCE-200 CESangam age during which books of Sangam Literature are created 
c. 13Greek historian Nicolaus of Damascus met an ambassador sent by Pandyan King to Caesar Augustus, Strabo XV.1-73.
c. 1-100The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea gives a detailed description of early Chera and Pandya kingdom and mentions a part of the Tamil country as Lymirike (misread as “Damirica” by some modern scholars).
c. 77 and 140Greco-Roman writers Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy mention Madurai ruled by Pandyan.
c. 130Chera king Udayanjeral rules in the Chera country
c. 175195Gajabahu I of Lanka a contemporary of Chera Senguttuvan and Karikala Chola (the Gajabahu synchronism)
c. 190Chera Kadukko Ilanjeral Irumporai rules in the Chera country 
c. 200Writing becomes widespread and vattezuttu evolved from the Tamil Brahmi becomes a mature script for writing Tamil 
c. 210Pandya Neduncheliyan rules in Madurai and defeats his enemies at the battle of Talaiyalanganam

Post-Sangam period[edit]

PeriodEvents
c. 300590Kalabhras invade the Tamil country and displace the traditional rulers
c. 300-500Post-Sangam period, Tamil epics such as Silappatikaram written

Pallava and Pandya[edit]

PeriodEvents
c. 560580Pallava Simhavishnu overthrows the Kalabhras in Tondaimandalam
c. 560590Pandya Kadungon rules from Madurai and displaces the Kalabhras from the south
c. 590630Pallava Mahendravarman I rules in Kanchipuram
c. 610Saiva saint Thirunavukkarasar (Appar) converts Mahendravarman from Jainism
c. 628Chalukya Pulakesi II invades the Pallava kingdom and lays siege on Kanchipuram
c. 630668Pallava Narasimhavarman I (Mamalla) rules in Tondaimandalam
c. 642Pallava Narasimhavarman I launches a counter invasion into the Chalukya country and sacks Vatapi. Pulakesi is killed in battle
c. 670700CE-Pandya Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman rules in Madurai
c. 700728Pallava Rajasimha builds the Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and many of the shore temples in Mamallapuram
c. 710730Pandya king Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran expands the Pandya kingdom into the Kongu country
c. 731Pandya Maravarman Rajasimha aligns with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II and attacks the Pallava king Nandivarmam
c. 731765Pandya Maravarman Rajasimha aligns with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II and attacks the Pallava king Nandivarmam
c. 735Chaluka Vikramaditya II invades the Pallava country and occupies the capital Kanchipuram
c. 760Pallava Nandivarman II invades and defeats the Ganga kingdom at the battle of Villande
c. 768815Pandya Parantaka Nedunchadaiyan (Varaguna Pandyan) rules in Madurai.
c. 767Pandya forces defeat the Pallavas on the south banks of the Kaveri
c. 800830Varagunan I becomes Pandya king and extends his empire up to Tiruchirapalli by defeating the Pallava king Dandivarman
c. 830862Pandya Sirmara Srivallabha rules in Madurai
c. 840Srimara invades Lanka and captures the northern provinces of the Lanka king Sena I[22]
c. 848Rise of Vijayalaya Chola in Tanjavur after defeating the Muttaraiyar[23]Muthuraja rulers of kaveri delta
c. 846869Pallava Nadivarman III leads an invasion against the Pandya kingdom and defeats the Pandyas
at the battle of Tellaru. Pallava kingdom extends up to the river Vaigai
c. 859Pandya Srivallaba defeats the Pallavas at a battle at Kumbakonam
c. 862Sinhala forces under Sena II invade the Pandya country and sack Madurai. Srimara is killed in battle

Chola period[edit]

PeriodEvents
c. 903Chola defeats the Pallava king Adithya Aparajita 
c. 949Battle of Takkolam. Rashtrakuta Krishna III defeats the Chola army 
c. 985Accession of Rajaraja Chola I
c. 1010Rajaraja completes the Brihadisvara Temple
c. 1012Accession of Rajendra Chola I 
c. 1023Rajendra’s Expedition to the Ganges 
c. 1025Chola navies defeat the king of Srivijaya 
c. 1041Rajendra invades Lanka 
c. 1054Rajadhiraja Chola dies in the battle of Koppam against Western Chalukyas 
c. 1070Accession of Kulothunga Chola I 
c. 1118Vikrama Chola 
c. 1133Kulothunga Chola II 
c. 1146Rajaraja Chola II 
c. 1163Rajadhiraja Chola II 
c. 1178Kulothunga Chola III 
c. 1216Rajaraja Chola III 
c. 1246Rajendra Chola III 

Chola to Pandya transition

PeriodEvents
c. 11901260Bana Dynasty rule Magadaimandalam with family title of ‘ponparappinan’ and headquarters at Aragalur 
c. 12161238Kadava Dynasty and Maravarman Sundara Pandyan ruled regions of South India

Pandiya revival and Muslim rule

PeriodEvents
1251Accession of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I
1279End of the Chola dynasty with the death of Rajendra Chola III
12681310Kulasekara Pandiyan rules in Madurai
1308Malik Kafur a general of Allaudin Khilji invades Devagiri en route to Tamil Nadu
1310Sundara Pandian, son of Kulasekara Pandiyan, kills his father and becomes king. In the ensuing civil war he is defeated by his brother Vira Pandiyan.[31]
1311Malik Kafur, invades Pandiya country and attacks Madurai[30]
13271370Madurai under the rule of Madurai Sultanate[30]

Vijayanagar and Nayak period[edit]

PeriodEvents
1370Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil country
1518Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast in Pulicat[32]
1532 to 1580Sevappa Nayak rules as the first independent Nayak ruler in Tanjavur
1600to 1645Ragunatha Nayak, the greatest of the Tanjavur Nayaks
1609the Dutch establish a settlement in Pulicat
1623 to 1659Tirumalai Nayak rules in Madurai
1639British East India Company purchases Chennapatinam and establishes Fort St. George
1652Tanjavur and Gingee fall to the Bijapur Sultan
1656Mysore army invades Salem against the Madurai Nayak Tirumalai
1676Maratha army from Bijapur marches into Tanjavur, Ekoji declares himself king[33]
1692Nawab of Arcot established by Nawab Zulfiqar Ali Khan, a viceroy of the Moghul Emperor
1746La Bourdonnais of the French East India company attacks and takes Fort St. George

East India Company[edit]

PeriodEvents
1749British regain Fort St. George through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle arising out of the War of the Austrian Succession
1751Robert Clive attacks Arcot and captures it.[34]
1756The British and the French sign the first Carnatic treaty. Mahommed Ali Walajah was recognized as Nawab of the Carnatic
1759French under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally, attack Madras
1760Battle of Vandavasi between the British and the French. Birth of Veerapandya Kattabomman
1767Hyder Ali, Sultan of Mysore attacks Madras against British, but defeated by the British at the Battle of Chengam
1773British Government passes the Regulating Act. The administration of Madras comes under British Government review
17771832Serfoji II rules in Tanjavur
1799Serfoji cedes the Tanjavur kingdom to the British. Kattabomman executed by British
1803Bentinck appointed governor of Madras
1800-1805Poligar Wars
1806Vellore Mutiny East India Company’s Indian soldiers in Vellore mutiny against governor Bentinck in Vellore fort. 114 British officers killed and 19 mutineers executed.

British rule[edit]

PeriodEvents
1892British government passes the Indian Councils Act
1909‘Minto-Morley Reforms’. Madras Legislative Council formed
1921First regional elections held in Madras. Justice party forms government[35]
1927Madras Congress passes a resolution for ‘Full Independence’
1928Simon Commission visits Madras. Mass protests result in several deaths
1937Congress party under C. Rajagopalachari wins provincial elections and forms government in Madras
1938Periyar E. V. Ramasamy organises a separatist agitation demanding Dravida Nadu consisting of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala
1941Indian Muslim League holds its congress in Madras. Muhammad Ali Jinnah delivers keynote speech
1944Periyar E. V. Ramasamy and C. N. Annadurai organise Dravidar Kazhagam

Post independence period[edit]

PeriodEvents
1947Madras Presidency, comprising Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka established
1953‘Madras state comes into being along linguistic lines
1965Widespread agitations in response to the Federal Government’s directive of Hindi being the National Language
1969Madras state is renamed as Tamil Nadu (Country of the Tamils)[36][37]

Excavations – Important – Tamil Nadu

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Attirampakkam, Attrampakkam, Dt Chingleput, Tamil Nadu
Attirampakkam or Attrampakkam is situated in the Korttalayar basin, with other sites in the neighbourhood, forms one of the key sites for the s. Indian (Madras) Lower Palaeolithic industry. Krishnaswami (1938, 1947) suggested that the Palar plain around Madras was characterized by a spread of detrital laterite underlain at certain places by a Quaternary B overlying pre-Tertiary formations. Paterson, 1941, was the first to point out a quadruple Pleistocene terrace sequence around .Madras, similar to what de Terra, 1939, had discovered in the n.w. The laterite peneplain here is cut by the river Korttalayar (old Palar) and near the Red Hills at Erumaivethipalayam terrace features could be recognized. At Attirampakkam itself Krishnaswami saw the stratigraphic evolution of the Acheulian cultures from the lateritic basal gravels of the aggradational terrace to the loam on the top one. Another noteworthy contribution of the site is that here, unique so far among Indian Stone Age sites, was recovered by Foote at least one vestigal fragment of a human tibia (as identified by Busk and Boyd Dawkins of Oxford) from the wash-out of the implement-bearing conglomerate.

In 1964-5 K.D. Banerjee et al. (IAR 1964-5, p. 20) laid four trenches 1 km away from Attirambakkam along the right bank of the Budida-Manu-Vanka on the high cliffs of approximately 50 m contour, showing the following stratification: (1) Sriperumbudur shale with a clayey top and with embedded remarkably fresh hand axes and cleavers, it being uncertain whether the horizon of this industry was simply on the surface of the shale or was an overlying deposit now washed away; (2) detrital laterite, containing the post-Acheulian flake industry, the tool types including points, scrapers and longish blade flakes; (3) sterile brownish silt; and (4) top surface yielding microliths. The work shows the current view that the laterite gravel is the Acheulian horizon is incur Teet and that the silt is not the horizon of the post-Acheulian flake industry.